Learn About Energy-Saving Artificial Lighting
Sometimes, a house is difficult to get natural lighting and air. This can occur due to building technical issues. Some of the problems are there is no way in for light and air to enter the house or an economic problem from the homeowner who has no budget to renovate their homes.
To overcome that problem, a simple solution that most people do is to use artificial lighting and air. Because this appliance uses electrical energy to work, so the minus is the possibility of excess energy usage which will impact your electricity bill. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to make good energy savings in using this appliance.
Artificial Light Function
The main function of artificial light at home is
- can see more clearly so you can easily recognize the surroundings,
- make it easy to do indoor activities,
- create a comfortable and safe environment
- make an objects and rooms more artistic
Various types of artificial light sources, lamps are the most commonly used. When use this lamps, three mood colors will be created according to their respective color temperatures, as in the following table.
The color effect from an object or room illuminated by light is strongly determined by the emission spectrum from the lamp.
Artificial Light Illumination
Illumination is the visible radiation application of a light source to an object. There are several types of illumination, namely as follows.
- Direct lighting is illumination with light distribution to the 90%-100% surface area.
- Semi-direct lighting is illumination with light distribution to the 60%-90% surface area.
- Diffuse lighting is illumination with light distribution to the 40-60% surface area.
- Semi-indirect lighting is illumination with light distribution to the 10-40% surface area.
- Indirect lighting is illumination with light distribution is less than 10% to the surface area.
Artificial Light Components
Lamps are one of the artificial light components that serve as light sources. The types of lamps that are widely used, especially in residential houses, are as follows.
An incandescent bulb is a type of lamp as an artificial light source that lights up by supplying an electric current to the wolfram wire (tungsten) resulting in heat and light. This wire has a melting point resistance up to 3,655 ° K. When the temperature exceeds that point, the bulb will break.
The lifespan of this lamp is about 1,000 hours. Therefore, incandescent lamps can also be said to be a type of bulb that produces light by heating objects/filaments by an electric current so incandescent will be made.
Inside this bulb is a vacuum that stops the oxidation of the incandescent wires. The color temperature of this lamp is 2,500-2,700 ° K (warm). The advantages of this lamp are inexpensive, while the drawbacks are the light is less bright and energy-intensive.
A neon lamp is a lamp that uses tungsten incandescent wire as a cathode to work. The neon tube inside emits low-pressure mercury vapor and emits ultraviolet light. To reduce/absorb ultraviolet radiation, on the neon tube wall is coated using thin phosphorus.
Neon lamps have two types, namely TL and SL lamps.
- Elongated TL tube lamps. This lamp tube is installed in a lamp holder that contains a ballast, starter, and other lamp components.
- SL lamps. This neon lamp has a more varied lamp model. This lamp is installed in the fitting with a twist system like an incandescent lamp.
The life span of TL neon lamps is between 7,000-15,000 hours, while SL neon lamps are between 7,000-10,000 hours with warm color temperatures (2,000-5,000 ° K). Therefore, this lamp is classified as a type of efficient lamp.
A fluorescent lamp is a lamp that resembles a fluorescent lamp, but the gas contained in a lamp containing fluorescent gas. This low-pressure gas will produce light with a radiation excitation process. This lamp is also classified as an energy-efficient lamp.
The armature is the home/place of a lamp that serves to direct and distribute light, protect the lamp, and as a place of equipment or electrical components. The electrical components contained in the lighting armature are a starter, capacitor, and ballast.
In choosing lamp armature, things to consider are
- can distribute light
- can make light efficient
- can provide protection against electric shocks
- water and dust resistant
A starter is a device that serves as preheating for lamp electrode and provide peak voltage so it can be a trigger to release of electrons inside the lamp. There are two types of starters, electronic starters and glow switch starters, which are used for fluorescent lamps.
Ballast is a device installed in the TL lamps and a type of gas discharge lamp that serves as a limiter for electric current when the lamp is operating. Ballast classified into two types, ballast resistor, and inductive ballasts.
e. Lamp Cable
The cable is an electrical component that serves to deliver electrical energy to the light source. The types of cable are as follows.
This cable is a PVC insulated cable and single core. The type is air cables with red, black, yellow, and blue color.
NYA cable has a relatively cheap price. However, because it only has one layer of insulation, it is not strong enough to resist friction, pressure, or animal bite such as rats. To make this cable stronger, external coatings are needed by using PVC or iron conduit pipes.
NYM cable is a cable with PVC insulation and has more than one core (there are 2, 3, or 4 core). This cable is air cable type with outer color is white and insulation color inside varies. Because it has double insulation, this cable is relatively stronger against friction dan pressure.
This cable is a PVC insulated cable that has 2, 3, or 4 core with outer color is black. This cable is resistant to water and pressure because it is classified as an underground cable. The price of this cable is relatively more expensive.
This cable is a copper cable type with two cores consisting of two colors. This cable is usually used for sound systems or lamps with small to medium power.
Light And Color
An object can be seen or not depends on the illuminance, luminance, object size, and the contrast between the object and its surroundings. The level of contrast between the object and its surroundings must be high so the object is easily recognized. In principle, every 1% reduction of contrast must be balanced with an additional 15% of illumination. In fact, the color of the object is a color element of the light reflected by the object itself. Objects in red color can look black if not exposed to light without the red component.
Mixing colors with additive light will produce white color (a mixture of various light colors will create white color) while mixing colors on subtractive objects will produce black color (a mixture of various object colors will create black color).
1. The tendency of color character
Colors tend to display different characters. Some characters that can be displayed by color are as follows.
- The yellow color is most easily recognized so it can help the eye to focus on the objects. Meanwhile, the blue color is the most difficult to recognize.
- Women are more likely to like yellow color while men prefer orange color.
- Babies are more attracted to striking colored light such as yellow, white, pink, and red. Meanwhile, an old man needs bright light for their activities.
- Some colors have a universal effect. For example, red, orange, and yellow colors can provide a warm effect while the blue, green, and purple color provides a cooler effect.
2. The relationship between color and mood
Color can also affect human moods. This is related to the strength of the spectrum in each different color. Some of the color effects and spectrum strength in affecting human moods are as follows.
The red color creates a warm mood, exciting, stimulating, hot, and as a sign of danger. The spectrum power for this color is 6,270-7,600 Armstrong.
The orange color creates a friendly mood, pleasant, radiant, exciting, but disconcerting as well. The spectrum power for this color is 6,270-7,600 Armstrong.
The blue color creates a calm, cool, peaceful, gentle, and refreshing mood. However, this color can also describe sadness. The strength of this color spectrum is 4,360-4,950 Armstrong.
Green color creates a calm, cool, and natural mood. The strength of this color spectrum is 4,950-5,660 Armstrong.
White color creates a pure and holy mood but can also cause a monotonous, boring, and blinding impression.
The purple color creates an obedient and beautiful mood, but it also describes loneliness. The strength of this color spectrum is 3,800-4,360 Armstrong.
Yellow color creates a cheerful mood, but can also be a symbol of death. The strength of this color spectrum is 5,660-5,890 Armstrong.
The brown color creates a neutral mood but is also not too happy.
The black color creates a mood of grieving and sad even though it can also create a mood of reverence.
3. Light color grouping
Based on the color emitted, light from the lamp can be categorized into three groups, that is.
- Warm white light color (yellowish white),
- Cool white light color (neutral),
- Daylight light color (perfect white/like sunlight)
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