Efficient Electrical Installation
Planning an economical electrical installation needs to know how the available power can be used optimally and low in daily operating costs.
Tips For Saving On Installation
Simplify the distribution of electricity groups in your home, try not to divide it too much.
The distribution of electricity groups based by region is more efficient in cable usage compared to electricity load (lamp load, socket load, electronic equipment load with large wattage requirements)
The Panel Boxes and Electricity Meters in Adjacent Position
The location of the electrical panel box at the house is not too far away with the single-phase energy meter (SPE Meter), because this cable is expensive. The shorter the cable, the lower the cost.
Switch and Socket in Adjacent Position
Install the switch and socket in an adjacent position, so that in 1 conduit pipe can be inserted 2 installations at the same time (switch installation and socket installation).
- To prevent leakage of electric current, we recommend that the connection between cables use a rat tail model rather than the hook model.
- Maintain electronic devices from lightning and leakage electric current, use ground in the single-phase energy meter box (SPE Meter).
Electrical Material Saving
Adjust the Size of the Cable with Power
For cable sizes, it should be adjusted to the power load in the house and the electrical installation function. For example, for lamp fittings used 2 x 1.5 mm cable size (cable containing 2 wires with a thickness of each wire 1.5 mm) while for power outlets with installed power, you should use a 3 x 2.5 mm cable.
For small homes with 900 watts installed, ideally, the cable size is 1.5 mm. Here’s how to calculate it:
P = V x I
P = power (watts)
V = voltage (volt-220v)
I = Electric Current (Ampere)
If the installed power is 900 watts and the voltage from the power plant is 220 volts, then the electric current on the cable is 4 ampere. Looking at the cable cross-section table, the cable with a cross-section of 1.5 mm² (safe electric current is 10 amperes and the maximum electric current is 14 amperes) is enough to be used in the small house.
Cross Section (mm²)
|Safe Current (Ampere)|
Maximum Current (Ampere)
Use fitting Lamp Type with Outbow Model
Outbow type has a wider spreadability of light compared to fitting lamp type. For example, lighting for a room with 3 x 4 size, it takes 1 spot of outbow light, while if you use the lamp type of inbound downlight is needed 2 spots of light.
See also: Hammered Metal Pendant Light Fixtures
Avoid Electricity Leakage
Electricity from the power plant keeps flowing even though the switch has been turned off. To find out the switch is completely turned off, use the Avo meter (Multimeter) to determine the voltage on the lamp fittings, the voltage must be <50 V. The causes of wasteful electricity include:
- Less perfect in cable connecting techniques.
- Cable insulator is peeled off.
- The switch does not work perfectly.
- The grounding system is less than perfect.
Tips for Saving Electricity Operating Costs Daily:
- Use energy-saving lights (SL).
- Do not turn on electronic devices together.
- Use a transformer for voltage stabilization.
- Try to use 900 watts of power, because the cost is cheaper.
- Periodically check electrical installations, whether there are rat bite marks or there are weathered insulators.
Efficient Water Installation
Have you ever experienced water in the faucet not flowing, or flowing but varying at various spots? Likewise, the problem of clogged toilets is very annoying. If you do a proper water installation, the above problems can be minimized.
In general, water installations in homes are grouped into two, namely clean water installations and disposal water installations. Using the right size and path placement can reduce the cost of making it.
Determination of Electrical Installation Design
There are 2 types of clean water installation systems, namely:
- Circular type system has the advantage that the water pressure is divided evenly at each point. But, the manufacturing cost is rather expensive because it requires more material.
- Disconnect type system, the manufacturing cost is quite economical, suitable for small type houses.
Clean Water Installation
Pipe Size Determination
To determine the diameter of the pipeline for clean water installation, we need to distinguish the water source, whether it comes from a water supply or from a pump well.
- For a water source from a water supply, use a diameter pipe 1/2 ”
- If using an electric pump well, the pipe is divided into primary pipes with a diameter of 1 1/4″- 1 1/2″, then for outlets use secondary pipes with a diameter of 1/2″
Determining Materials for Installing Clean Water Pipes
Installation pipe material for clean water in the market consists of 3 types:
Suitable for use in high-pressure water and high temperatures requires special tools and expertise in applications and repairs. Within a certain period, the pipe will rust and then leak.
A Pipe from Soft Iron
Usually used in hot water installations, the application is easy because it can be bent. Less economical because the installation is expensive and special accessories are needed.
The Most Economical Pipe is PVC Pipe (Polyvinyl Chloride)
Certain brands are able to withstand high water pressure and temperature, the cost of making and repairing is the cheapest compared to other materials. Not corrosive so the life is longer.
Disposal Water Installation
Determination of Water Plan Installation
When placing water installation lines there are several criteria that must be met:
- The path is not too long. The layout of the bathroom, kitchen or sink should be close to the sewer.
- The path is not too many turns. If must have to, then use the knee pipe with a 45 ‘angle so that the bend does not form an elbow.
- Place the pipes in an easily identifiable location, so that if there is a leak it will be easy to fix it.
- Add a control tank in each branch, or each pipe length has reached 4 m.
Determine the Size of the Sewer Pipe
The size and type of material must be carefully chosen. The size that is too small will cause clogged pipes, while if the pipe is too large there will to waste. So, what is the ideal size for a sewer pipe?
- A sewer pipe from the bathroom floor is enough to use a pipe with 3 ‘diameter.
- For the sink use 1 1/4″ pipe, but if the sink in the kitchen use 3″ pipe to avoid clogging and easy maintenance or repair.
- For toilet pipelines, pipes with 4″ diameter are non-negotiable. If you use a smaller size the risk of clogging will be easier.
From the materials, there are 3 types of sewer pipes:
Pipe from Clay
Usually with 4″ diameter, it is used for toilet pipelines, but now it is rarely used because it is easily broken and needs much time to apply it.
Pipe diameter is very diverse, rarely used because in addition to being expensive it is also not resistant to rust / corrosive. This iron pipe is suitable to be applied in a special place such as installed horizontally without a support device, or in an area that will be passed by heavy vehicles.
An Economical Pipe from PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)
Pipe diameter varies, prices are cheaper, faster in installation and some certain pipe brands are resistant to heavy loads.
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